Light & medium tanks, armored cars
Around 10,000 AFVs

Medium tanks

Light tanks

Infantry support tanks


Self propelled guns

Amphibious vehicles

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Other vehicles



AT Weapons

The very origins of Japanese armor

During WW1, Imperial Japanese troops actively fought against positions of the Central Powers in the Pacific theater. The navy emerged as an almost independent institution and played a minor role within the drama of WWI, but the army saw little action. However, after the Bolshevik Revolution, the Japanese sent 70,000 troops into Siberia, in order to support the White Russians. The results and costs of the campaign were not well appreciated back home and, in this context, the need for tanks emerged. Officers found themselves acutely aware of the tank development by the western powers, and the military junta quickly purchased several machines abroad.

In 1921, the IJA acquired a few British Mark A Whippets, which became the first Japanese tanks, and around 6 machines were duly tested and used in maneuvers until 1930. In 1919, thirteen Renault FTs were bought, the most common tank of the day worldwide, which became the mainstay of the early infantry tank force, under the name of “FT-Ko”. They served during the “Manchurian incident” in 1931, with the 1st Tank Unit of the 12th Division. 10 more vehicles were ordered in 1931 from France, namely the Renault NC27, called “Otsu” by the Japanese, a modernized and improved variant of the FT. They were deployed in the 1st Tank Unit in Kurume, and remained in China for the duration of WW2.

Development during the thirties

The first indigenous design came after the study of contemporary British designs, like the Medium Mark C, at the Chiba Infantry School. These, along with new information about tank tactics, led to the experimental Type 87, in 1927. It was initiated by the 4th Military Laboratory of the Imperial Japanese Army Technical Bureau, and made of soft steel. The Type 89 Yi-Go was built in large numbers, first with the Ko variant, and later the Otsu (278 and 126 units).

It was a relatively fast (25 km/h), diesel-equipped, well-armored infantry tank built from 1929 to 1936. It formed the mainstay of the Japanese army in China, participating in the Shanghai incident and subsequent conquest of China. By 1941 they were seen as obsolete, but many participated in the Philippines operations, were they remained until 1944. Also in 1927, the Japanese bought 6 Carden-Lloyd Mk.VI tankettes, and copied the suspension system and drivetrain. The first derivative was the “combat car” Type 92 Jyu-Sokosha, built for the cavalry corp. Later on, they built several hundreds of small reconnaissance tankettes, like the Type 94 Te-Ke.

Operations in China

By 1933, the IJA had created its first three tanks units, the 1st and 3rd Regiment at Kurume and the 2nd Regiment at the Chiba Tank School. An Independent Mixed Brigade was formed in China the same year, mainly with Type 89 and 94 tanks. In 1934, this was renamed to the 1st Independent Mixed Brigade. The Chinese had no tanks and few capable antitank guns, so these tanks served as mobile pillboxes and provided infantry support. By 1937, 8 tank regiments had been formed, with a total of 1060 vehicles. By July of the same year, thirteen tankette companies (with four platoons of four tankettes each) were sent to China. The bad roads and general terrain in Manchuria were a proving ground for many tank designs, where engines, suspensions, tracks and transmissions were thoroughly put to the test. In 1938, two (1st and 3rd) Senshadan, or tank groups, were formed to control Manchuria’s borders with USSR.

War with the Soviets

In 1938-39, several frontier incidents had degenerated into a full scale battle. The biggest clash occurred at Kalkhin Gol. IJA forces were defeated by the better tanks and more aggressive Russian tactics. The generals, whom had always seen tanks primarily as a mean to offer support to the infantry, began to see them as a fighting force in themselves. The 3rd and 4th Tank Regiments in Manchuria were equipped with all the range of IJA models in service that year. They were committed during those days, were they lost 42 tanks out of 73, while the Russians had lost 32 BT tanks. After some initial successes, the Japanese tanks were surrounded and decimated. This failure triggered many changes in the IJA tactical thinking and, in response to the Russian tanks, several new antitank guns and new tank models were devised. General Tomoyuki Yamashita was sent to Germany to study Wehrmacht tactics and armored warfare doctrine. He made a report, full of recommendations for new medium tanks and better infantry equipment against tanks. In April 1941, the armored branch became independent, with General Shin Yoshida as first commander in chief.

World War Two

The tank force was primarily under the command of the IJA, and not the navy. Also, due to the nature of the Pacific theater, were operations mostly involved small islands ill-suited for tanks, these were deployed only in several large scale operational areas, were they could be effective in blitzkrieg-style tactics. These include China, the Philippines, Burma, Indonesia (Java), while some were dispersed in support of infantry units on Okinawa, Iwo Jima and several other islands. On December 22, near Damortis, on Luzon island (Philippines) the first clash between Japanese and US tanks occurred. They were opposed to M3 and M2A4 light tanks of the American 192nd Tank Battalion. The 57 mm (2.24 in) gun of the Chi-Ha, then the best frontline IJA tank, proved useless against their armor. In Burma, engaging second and third rate light tanks, and a few Stuarts from the 2nd Royal Tank Regiment, the Japanese proved deadly. By 1943, the SNLF, or Navy Armored Force, received its first amphibious tanks, like the Ka-Mi. 223 units would be built until 1945. The Germans sent two Panzer IIIs to Japan, followed later by plans of their more advanced tanks. However, upgrades were slow to appear and the development of really effective German-style tanks never really materialized. Only a few of these new types were completed by 1945, and many prototypes never entered production. Lacking materials and petrol, Japan’s industrial capacities were hampered to the point of complete inefficiency.

The last tanks built were allocated to home defense units, waiting for the invasion (operation Olympic), which never came. When the Soviets invaded Manchuria in August 1945, they found an impressive tank force, at least on the paper, but a deep ravine separated the IJA and Soviet types. The latter had constantly improved their models in response to German tanks, and were much more advanced in speed, firepower and protection than the average IJA models, which were light and/or obsolete by any standards of the time.

It has to be said that the Japanese never had the capacity to develop large-scale production, at least comparable to the western powers. Even during the war, the US naval blockade, mostly performed by the US Navy Air Force and submarines, began to be felt in 1943. By late 1944, Japan was deprived of all kinds of industrial resources, previously taken from south-east Asia, and their industries were constantly hammered by swarms of B-29 bombers operating from China, and later from Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Production efforts were split between the needs of the Army and Navy, leading to many specifications and many proposed vehicles, almost all never surpassing the prototype or pre-series stages.

Japan’s first tank was this Mark IV Female imported from the United Kingdom in 1918. It was widely demonstrated to the Japanese public who had never seen a tank before, and served as a study guide for Japanese engineers in building their own tanks. Source

The Type 87 was one of Japan’s first standardized armored fighting vehicles. At least a dozen of these Vickers-Crossley armored cars were purchased from England and served in the occupation of Shanghai in 1932. Source

The Type 89 I-Go was Japan’s first production tank. It was inspired heavily by the Vickers Medium Mark C that Japan had purchased in 1927. The I-Go saw numerous redesigns over the course of production, and despite being hopelessly outdated, served through all of World War II. Source

The Type 91 heavy tank was Japan’s second proper indigenous tank. It is representative of Japan’s heavy tank doctrine, namely large, lightly armored, multi-turreted designs only produced in very small numbers. Source

The Type 95 Ha-Go was the third tank produced by Japan, the last tank of the “Iroha-Go” naming system, and the Japanese tank produced in the largest numbers. Despite being adequate for the fighting in Machuria and in the Pacific jungles, the Ha-Go was hopelessly outdated when the United States entered the war; but by then it was already too late for Japan to get modern tanks into production and onto the battlefield. Source

The Type 97 Chi-Ha was the backbone of Japan’s armored force throughout World War II despite its obsolescence. This particular Chi-Ha is of the Kai (Improved) model with the more powerful Type 1 47 mm gun. Source

The Type 3 Chi-Nu was the last major Japanese tank to get into production, however despite being built in not inconsiderable numbers, the Chi-Nu never saw combat, as they were kept in the Japanese home islands to defend against the projected Allied invasion that never came. Source

The Type 5 Chi-Ri was the last and largest medium tank designed in Japan in World War II. Misidentified as a heavy by American forces due to its weight, the only complete Chi-Ri was taken to the United States where it was scrapped in the 1950s. Source

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History forgets. Files are lost and mislaid. But this book seeks to shine a light, offering a collection of cutting edge pieces of historical research detailing some of the most fascinating arms and armament projects from the 1920s to the end of the 1940’s, nearly all of which had previously been lost to history.Included here are records from the UK’s MI10 (the forerunner of GCHQ) which tell the story of the mighty Japanese heavy tanks and their service during the Second World War.

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31 Responses to Japan (WW2)

  1. John Hastings says:

    Dear Sirs,Just found your website and it’s great.I am interested in Japanese armor,especially prototypes and oddballs that never made it into production.
    I would like to order a copy of your Japanese tank poster if possible.Thank you,John Hastings

  2. Mark Nash says:

    Apparently a single Tiger I was purchased, with a Panther along with two Panzer IIIs mentioned, but only the Panzer IIIs were actually delivered. The Japanese Goverment let the Germans have the undelivered Tiger back apparently.

  3. Mark Nash says:

    Also as I recall from an Osprey Book. The O-I would’ve been highly impractical for the war it was fighting, much like the Maus. No bridge in Japan, or let alone the Pacific Islands would’ve taken the weight, they had no dependable bridge layers to deal with this either. They lacked a landing craft capable of carrying it, and if they had one, the it would’ve sunk in the soft ground of the tropical islands.

    • AFAIK, with what updated info we have on the O-I, that wouldn’t have been much of a problem:
      The O-I was developed as a mobile bunker on the fields of Manchuria, so the 150 ton weight wouldn’t have been much of a problem.

      BTW,there is some inaccurate data on the O-I in your article, the vehicle was intended to be 150 tons in weight, not 120. The “O-Ho” you list as the 140-150 ton variant is a Wargaming creation based on inaccurate information on the O-I. Furthermore, in-game, the O-Ho is listed as a 120 ton tank.

      • Stan Lucian says:

        Hello Shrekoning.
        Any sources for those claims?

        • The idea of the O-I being 150 tons was supported by documents found in 2015. These are analyzed by Japanese tank historian Eon-Ae-Sun on her blog. She works as historical consultant for Japanese Ground Forces in War Thunder and is generally considered today to be one of the foremost historians on the subject today.
          Her Forum post on the subject:
          Blog posts:

          Furthermore, the official WOT wiki lists the O-Ho as 120 tons fully loaded:

          and has this to say at the end of it’s article under “Historical errata”:
          * O-Ho is based on the drawings from the book “Imperial Japanese Army Ground Weapon Guide 1872-1945”. Unlike the drawings of “O-I 100t”, which is what the tier 7 Japanese heavy tank O-Ni is based on, the dawings of the “O-I 120t” has basically no basis on them; they are *purely* based on false information and rumors. Due to this, the O-I 120t/O-Ho never actually existed.

          In-game name is incorrect. The name “O-Ho” means “fifth (super) heavy tank”. There however are no third and fourth super-heavy designs, as the O-I was the first and the Type 4/5 (O-Ro/O-Ro Kai) second design. If the O-Ho actually existed, a more realistic designation would be “O-I III” (as the both O-I 100t (O-Ni) and O-I 120t are based on designs that were earlier designs than the O-Ro, they most likely would have been referred as “altnerate” designs to the O-I – O-I 100t and O-I 120t as O-I II and O-I III, respectively).

          • Stan Lucian says:

            Hello Shrekoning,
            We are aware of Eon Ae Sun’s work, which we have covered and analyzed. We feel that our current article best represents the currently available information. If more comes to light, we will look at it and reevaluate our work.
            Also, it should be noted that Eon Ae Sun is an amateur historian, just like ourselves, not a professional. Also, there are some credibility issues raised about her work, not least of which is the fact she doesn’t mention her sources.
            As for WoT, we’ll steer well clear of that when looking for historical sources, not least of which due to the Japanese heavy line which is a mess of wrongly interpreted data and outright fake vehicles.

  4. Philippe Maurice says:

    Can anyone suggest what was the basis for Tintin Blue Lotus tank or carrier vehicle? I am trying to do a display panel for an eventual exhibit about Herge and his characters Tintin, Milou [Snowy, in English] and the others. Any suggestion is greatly appreciated. Kind regards! Philippe, from Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

  5. jandog says:

    Kurogane and the type 94 or 97? should be included 🙂 there’s a scale model of it manufactured by Pit Road. Some japanese armors / cars. This website is so great and helpful 🙂

  6. Jorge says:

    This website is really cool. I have bookmarked it.
    Do you allow guest posting on your page ? I can write hi quality posts for you.
    Let me know.

  7. Kevin O'Brien says:

    Good day gentlemen. I would just like to say THANK YOU for creating such a fantastic web site dedicated to all these wonderful tanks. I came here looking for a bit of info and was astounded but the wealth of it there was.

  8. jes says:

    The link does not work for the Type 3 Ka-Chi in Amphibious tanks (223 units).

  9. Matthewfors says:

    I know it’s probably a fake tank but can you add the Chi-Nu2

  10. Kierzek says:

    Dear sirs: you photo above identified as a Type 5 To-Ku, is not correct. Look at the chassis for one. It is too small and short; it is a Type 95 chassis. The prototype Type 5 To-Ku chassis was based on the Type 5 Chi-Ri medium tank chassis/hull and would have 8 road wheels, as your fine drawing shows on the article page for this tank. BTW – I see Wikipedia has been used as a source for many of your IJA tank articles; I have spent the last year and a half updating and editing many of the articles therein with RS sources, so you may want to check your information used, which was based on said Wikipedia articles. I do enjoy your site, keep up the good work. Cheers, Kierzek.

    • MarkNash says:

      Our older articles are in a state of upgrade at present. We will be updated said article ASAP.

      – TE Moderator

      • Kierzek says:

        Excellent. One other note, the photo identified as a Type 3 Ka-Chi above, is really a Type 2 Ka-Mi; again, Type 95 chassis. As you know, the Type 3 Ka-Chi was based on a modified Type 1 Chi-He chassis with 2 extra road wheels and two extra return rollers on each side.

  11. General BlackFox says:

    In the list there are links that are not working is that because they don’t have page to go to or it’s not updated. (for example the superheavy tank)

    • Thomas Anderson says:

      I have personally checked the list and all links appear to be working. If you encounter this problem in the future please let us know and we will look into it further to see if there are any other possible causes

      TE Moderator

  12. Very wonderful website mentlegens! However, I must point out your O-I article is outdated, the O-I was 150 tons, not 120.

  13. Herman Moore says:

    Really Awesome and very informative site. I am very interested in Japanese WWII Armor and vehicles and coming across your website has been most refreshing. Great work and after reading the comments section it is wonderful to have so many other like minded members adding even more info.

  14. Joshua says:

    Do you guys have a plan for the Type 5 Ho-Ri tank destroyer? I’ve always been interested by Japanese tanks and the Ho-Ri is a vehicle I know little about.

  15. Hi.

    Your Type 95 Heavy tank pic shows in fact a Type 91 Heavy Tank, easily identifiable by the large number of roadwheels and the main turret shape.

    Type 95:


    tom! 😉

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