14.5 mm AT rifle – Soviet Army
about 5000 built.
Design and history :
By 1940 the Russian Army possessed no AT rifle whatsoever. When meeting the Polish armed with the Wz.35, a simple lenghtened 7.9mm rifle, they found a weapon that had capabilities against their armoured cars and thinly armoured tanks. Many were captured, and Soviet engineer Vasily Degtyaryov developed a custom-built rifle copying its lock and bolt-action mechanism, as well as some featured of the German Panzerbüchse 38. When the war broke off with Germany in july 1941, he was ordered to produce thousands of them in a record time. The design was even more simplified for the task, and an unknown quantity were delivered to the Red Army. What is certain is this weapon was the most current Soviet antitank weapon in service.
The design was simple indeed, it was strictly utilitarian and made with few pieces in order to be cheap and fast to produce with few skills. A single, 1.35 m (6.4 in) barrel tube recoiled within the stock itself, opened the breech and ejected the cartridge on the move. Then the user introduced a new cartridge, and secure the lock by pushing the bolt, like in any standard rifle. There was no magazine. The user handled the rifle through two pistol grip and the recoil was absorbed partially by a simple muzzle brake and the shoulder stock. There was also a carrying handle for transport, placed on the balance point -the gun weighted 17 kgs (38 ibs). It was held in place by two folded legs.
The PTRD fired a 14.5mm x 14mm round, either steel or tungsten. Practical range was 550 yards, but due to the poor quality of the sightings (front post and rear notch) and the lack of training, this was much reduced in practice. Performances were good however, with a 3300 ft/sec muzzle velocity. The PTRD-41 could punch through a slighty sloped 35mm armor at 100 m and even 40mm with the tungsten core ammo.
The PTRD-41 was found effective against many German tanks (namely the Panzer I, II, and Panzer 35(t) and Panzer 38(t)) and all armoured cars in 1941-42. But it was completely innefective against Panzer III and IV and later models. As a tactical change, users were ordered to fire on vision slits, but it required extreme accuracy and a lot of luck. Plus the blast created a lot of smoke, troubling the vision for the next shot, as well as revealing the position of the user.
The gun was withdrawn from service in 1943 but found use in partisan warfare (fighting against second-grade or captured armoured vehicles) and house-to-house combat as it could pierce a wall. In the meantime the PTRS-41 designed by Simonov replaced the PTRD, as it was less complicated and had better performances. Germans captured and reused also scores of them as the Panzerzbwehrbuchse 783(r). The PTRD managed to survive and was taken in action by North Korean and Chinese forces in Korea. It is probably still in the inventory or many armies today.
The standard PTRD-41, with its legs unfolded.
Technical data :
- Weight & Dimensions: Weight unloaded 17.3 kg; Length 2020 mm (Barrel 1350mm)
- Performances : Muzzle Velocity : 1114 m/s (3655 ft/s) Penetration 25mm/500m; Practical range 3000m, max range 10 000m. Rate of Fire : 5-6 rpm
- Ammo : Caliber 14.5mm x 140mm; Hardened steel or Tungsten core. No magazine.