Development of the KTO RosomakIn 2001, a competition was held to replace the cold war era 8x8 OT-64 Skot, a domestic APC also produced and used by Hungary, ans the local version of the BMP-1 called BWP-1. An international competition was held in Poland to compare vehicles from various manufacturers. In the end, the Patria APW was seen in close compeition with the MOWAG Piranha P and Steyr Pandur. The first won the contest and the Polish Ministry of National Defense in December 2002 choose to acquire a manufacturing licence from Patria for them to be built in Poland, some 690 Patria AMV were ordered at first.
About the Patria AMVThe Patria was a Finnish vehicle which studies went back to the post-soviet era, with work starting in 1995 but in service by 2007. This very modular 8x8 APC was inspired by the 1970s Swiss Mowag Piranha and declined into a main variant in 2013 called AMV featuring a heavily versatile compartment designed for easy and cheap conversions to numerous variants. It was widely exported, eight countries purchasing it. It was also evaluated by Australia and the US (Havoc). It is also domestically built as the South African Badger, and the Slovenian SKOV Svarun.
About the Polish versionIn total, the Polish Army perceived as of 2020, some 997 APCs and amphibious AFVs (other source 1197). They are also internally designated XC-360P with last Deliveries by 2019 by adding a total order of 997 plus a remainder of Finnish-built Patria vehicles. The Polish Army ordered 690 vehicles divided between 313 featuring the Oto Melara 30 mm Hitfist-30P turret, and 377 in other variants to be completed between 2004 and 2013. The 2013 supplementary order of 307 vehicles integrated 122 APCs and 80 mortar version. Poland is the largest operator of the Patria AMW worldwide. The name 'Rosomak' (Polish for "Wolverine") was chosen following a contest organized by the Nowa Technika Wojskowa magazine and is also the name of the company producing it.
Rosomak M2 AWC APC
DesignThe KTO Rosomak is a relatively massive vehicle, but still light at 22 tonnes (to compare with the Badger or Swiss Piranha V or 33 tonnes). It was closely modelled after the Patria with few changes, 7.7 m (25 ft) long overall for a width of 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in), an eight of 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) and carrying a crew of three, the commander, driver, and gunner, plus eight equipped infantrymen in the aft section. In the basic turret version (IFV), the driver is on the right, engine on the left. The driver's hatch was rectangular, with a foldable glass block allowing him to be protected from the elements while having a much better visibility than classic persicopes. There is a second "war operation" low silhouette armoured glass above that can be setup instead, giving the driver still good vision while presenting a lower surface. Behind the driver was located the Commander and gunner, both in the turret. In that case, the commander is given a round hatch, opening forward for protection, and a single IR vision block forward, while the hatch cupola has a 360° traverse. He also shares in the turret a vision episcope. His hatch is semi-rectangular and he sist right behind the driver in other versions, notably the basic turretless APC.
Rosomak M2 APC
MobilityThe DI 12 Scania Diesel is located in the right compartment, capable of delivering an output of 360 kW (480 hp) or 405 kW (543 hp) deopending on the version for a power/weight ratio of 15.6 kW/t (21.2 PS/t). Its maximum speed was over 100 km/h (60 mph) with a limited, on flat, about 60-80 off-road and up to 10 km/h when swimming. In that case, preparations are limited to erect the trim vane, and lower the propellers.
As a 8×8 wheeled vehicle, each pair is independent, with central inflation system and suspended on torsion bars. The vehicle normal Operational range is about 800 km or 500 mi.
FirepowerThis varied widly between variants. The M1 is given a 30×173 mm ATK Mk44 Bushmaster II gun and coaxial GMPG, the M2 a 12.7 mm and the M3 a 40 mm Mk 19 grenade launcher. See variants notes.
ProtectionPresumably STANAG 4569 (level 4) deduced from the Patria. It includes protection from 12.7 to 14.5 mm guns, strikes from kinetic energy, artillery, and IED blasts.
Production & VariantsTen KTO Rosomak has been declined into ten versions, filling all the niche uses of the Polish Army: Infantry transport, Infantry combat support, command, ambulance, engineering, antitank, mortar and recce that fits nicely into Polish motorized infantry organically, and presents huge maintenance cost-savings.
Users includes Poland with 863 vehicles and the UAE with forty Polish-built AMW Patria. The Rosomak has been deployed for the moment to the War in Afghanistan, called the Polish task force, a contingent part of the International Security Assistance Force. It operated over 100 vehicles, including 5 medevac versions, with the M3 APCs equipped with additional armor. In 2008 one Rosomak was attacked by the Taliban and thanks to its add-on armour it survived a frontal hit by a RPG-7 rocket, and fired back, the returned to base safely. In 2009 however, the gunner was killed while travelling in a Rosomak M3 after an IED explosion. The vehicle rolled over and crushed the gunner standing in his open turret. The Rosomak was also part of the European Union mission in Chad (2007–2008), the EU Force Chad/CAR.
Rosomak M1 IFV: The main infantry fighting vehicle, of which 313 are in service, featuring the Hitfist-30P turret, 30 mm ATK Mk 44 chain gun and 7.62mm NATO coaxial UKM-2000C machine gun. The turret has an advanced fire control system, with thermal sight, Polish Obra laser warning system and the turret sports six 81 mm 902A ZM Dezamet smoke grenade launchers.In Afghanistan, this vehicle was modified as the M1M up-armored variant, with additional steel-composite armor. But it als had upgraded communications, hatch wire cutters, video cameras for urban combat, and the automatic Pilar system detecting the direction of fire for immediate response. Because of the added weight, it is not amphibious, and the water propellers were removed. The M1M received also the QinetiQ RPGNet, the US-provided Duke anti IED system and Blue Force Tracking BMS an, whereas classic M1 painted green also received RPG Net.
Rosomak-SArmored personnel carrier variant for two anti-tank teams armed with Spike anti-tank guided missile.
Rosomak-WEMAmbulance; with crew of 3, capable of transporting 3 injured soldiers on stretchers and an additional four in sitting position. The WEM-M variant for Afghanistan was equipped with additional armor and RPGNet same as in M1M variant.
Rosomak M2/M3The Armored personnel carrier variant. One was unarmed, and the M3 modified Afghanistan was equipped with additional armor just like the M1 but also the OSS-D open turret and a 40 mm Mk-19 grenade launcher, or a 12.7 mm NSW/WKM-B heavy machine gun.
Rosomak-WRT:Technical Reconnaissance Vehicle
Rosomak-WSRiD:Multisensory Reconnaissance and Supervision System, recce variant
Rosomak-AWD:Artillery Command Vehicle) for each M120K Rak mortar company fire module
Rosomak-WD:Command Vehicle, using the same compartment as the WEM, heavily modified.
Rosomak M120K RakTurreted 120mm mortar artillery vehicl (2017)
Rosomak-NJDriving school vehicle
LinksThe KTO Rosomak on Wikipedia
Polish info page rosomaksa.pl milmag.pl On Janes International (archive) dziennikzbrojny.pl forsal.pl
KTO Rosomak twardy specifications
|Dimensions (l-w-h):||Length 7.7 m (25 ft), Width 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in), Height 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)|
|Total weight, battle ready:||22,000 kg (49,000 lb),|
|Crew :||3 (Driver, Gunner, Commander)+ 8|
|Propulsion:||DI 12 Scania Diesel 360 kW/405 kW, 15.6 kW/t|
|Top Speed||100 kph (60 mph) 10 kph water|
|Range (road)/Fuel||800 km (500 miles)|
|Armament (see notes)||ATK Mk44 Bushmaster II gun, 12.7 mm/40 WKM-B, 7.62 mm NATO GMPG coax.|
|Armour||STANAG 3 (12.7 mm AP shells and shrapnells)|
Rosomak M1 in Afghanistan, Ghazni base 2010
Rosomak M1 in Afghanistan, Polish Task Force 2012
Rosomak M1M in Afghanistan, Polish Task Force in Ghasny base 2012